Peneliti: Rinaldi Camil, Natasha H. Attamimi, dan Klara Esti

Dengan pengguna aktif mencapai 106 juta dan pertumbuhan pengguna aktif mencapai 34% (We Are Social, 2016), media sosial di Indonesia tumbuh menjadi pasar yang menarik secara ekonomis maupun politis. Peluang meraup untung maupun menggaet massa ini lantas dimanfaatkan oleh berbagai aktor, mulai dari industri periklanan hingga para pemain politik. Para pelaku ini menyuarakan kepentingannya dengan kicauan berbayar. Konon, pengicaunya adalah tokoh yang dinilai punya pengaruh–atau yang belakangan ini kerap disebut dengan istilah buzzer.

Gaduh Pemilihan Gubernur DKI Jakarta 2012 dan panasnya Pemilu Presiden 2014 yang diwarnai penyebaran informasi palsu (hoax) dan polarisasi warga adalah cermin besarnya pengaruh buzzer dalam membentuk percakapan di ranah daring. Fenomena buzzer di media sosial telah mengaburkan batas antara voice (suara warga) dengan noise (kondisi bising). Belakangan, menjamurnya akun-akun buzzer–dengan beragam jenis dan motifnya–kian tak terkendali. Gagasan bahwa media sosial berkontribusi besar sebagai sarana partisipasi warga dalam pembangunan mulai terancam. Sayangnya, upaya untuk memperkuat ruang publik terkendala oleh minimnya pemahaman mengenai apa itu buzzer dan dalam konteks apa buzzer mampu memengaruhi opini publik.

Penelitian ini berupaya untuk menjawab pertanyaan kunci tentang proses seseorang menjadi buzzer, karakter umum buzzer, serta bagaimana buzzer beroperasi, termasuk di dalamnya adalah lanskap industri buzzing. Pada akhirnya, fenomena buzzer penting dipahami secara utuh agar publik mampu menilai sejauh mana buzzer bisa ditempatkan dalam koridor demokrasi, sekaligus mengambil langkah-langkah yang perlu untuk memperkuat ruang-ruang publik.

Ringkasan laporan riset (Bahasa Indonesia) dapat diunduh pada tautan ini.


Research Period: April – May 2016

CIPG and National Democratic Institute is conducting a research on the implementation of open government and open data in three cities; Tangerang, Mojokerto, and Pontianak. This research questions how Open Government and Open Data is adopted and implemented, as well as the enabling factors of the transformation process.

This study also seeks to understand the sustainability aspects of open government and stakeholder involvement within the program. Through this research, we hope to give valuable input to national and local government on optimizing Open Government Indonesia.

Researchers: Fajri Siregar, Mona Luthfina Usmani, Leonardus K. Nugraha, Wirawan Agahari

Research Period: April – May

Indonesia boasts plenty of alternative energy resources. However, Indonesia’s energy consumption is still dominated by fossil fuel. A larger movement is therefore needed to articulate the need to move away or decouple from conventional energy production methods. A critical mapping is important to understand the landscape of the movement to end fossil fuel, as well as the dynamics and power relations amongst stakeholders in Indonesia

The purpose of this study is to map the strategic action to take in promoting the anti-fossil based movement. This study will identify actors, media and also events which can act as a campaign drivers to create a massive and effective narrative as a refusal on fossil-based fuel. In the end, this research will provide recommendations about stakeholders, campaign strategy including media engagement trend, and potential base of the movement to end fossil fuel in Indonesia

Researchers: Fajri Siregar, Ferzya Farhan, Natasha Hassan Attamimi

Research Period: April – May 2017

This research explores the presence of creative hubs in Indonesia (Makerspace, Coworking space, creative spaces). The increasing number of creative hubs needs to be met by an enhanced understanding of their existence. This early study aims to identify the vision, practices, and challenges faced by these hubs.

This survey will use an online survey to explore the potential space in which creative spaces can grow in Indonesia. By doing so, we hope to assist the creative hubs in improving their management and networking capacities in order to achieve their vision.

Researchers: Fajri Siregar, Daya Sudrajat

Research Period: February-May 2017

Social media has recently become a phenomenon in Indonesia. With rapid growth and approximately more than 100 million active social media users, it has become an attractive market not only for global brands but also politicians, celebrities and government. They use social media for many purposes including advertising, promotion and political purposes.

One of many ways to spread words and generate online conversation in social media is through buzzer. There is currently no rigid definition of buzzer.  One of the common definitions is someone with a twitter and thousands of followers who is paid to tweet.  Although the definition still fluid,  Buzzer has been considered as important part in driving online discourse in Indonesia. Due to this matter, there is still many questions regarding the definition of buzzer and how buzzer really works.

Toward qualitative and quantitative approaches, this research aims to understand the definition, origin of buzzer and how buzzer influences public opinion in Indonesia, specifically in the context of industry and politics.

Researchers: Mohammad Rinaldi Camil,  Natasha Hassan Attamimi, Klara Esti

Research period: February – April 2017

Inclusive development (ID) is a key priority to lessening the inequality among people and ensures the ecosystem balance. Its cover economic, social, ecological and citizen rights aspect. Inclusive development is a universal term that’s not only for emerging and developing countries but also for developed one. For Indonesia, lessening the inequality is a primary concern when one of founding fathers lay the economic foundation. Taking cooperative, a ‘community self-help’ or ‘mutual cooperation’ concept to tackle poverty, raising prosperity, implementing democratic participation as well as equality. Therefore, cooperative become an important issue towards inclusive development.

Cooperatives in Indonesia, of course, are diverse. This research will focus on the cooperative movement as a mean of ‘kooperasi’ to draw a distinction with ‘koperasi’ which commonly used by Indonesian. The cooperative movement (kooperasi) is a ‘self-organised’ cooperative that put ideology above profit.

The relationship between inclusive development and cooperatives raises some essential questions: how cooperative movements contribute towards the inclusive development? How the government policies predispose the cooperatives existences? Does innovation help the cooperatives to achieve their goals?

Consequently, those questions are the basis of this report, which address a contribution of cooperatives’ movement in the inclusive development and a number of policy-relevant themes around “cooperatives and inclusive development”. The project was carried out and funded by CIPG.

Researchers: Ferzya Farhan and Daya Sudrajat.

Research period: February-June 2017

In recent years, the rapid development of ICT has been instrumental in driving innovation that transforms almost every aspects of human life. In the context of Indonesia, a major role of ICT in influencing the dynamics of the nation can not be separated from the linkage with the media. Hence, this innovation outlook will highlight various key events in the sphere of ICT and media as well as existing regulations in both sectors. By identifying challenges, prospects, and agenda for change in both sectors, this report is expected to be beneficial for practitioners as well as policy makers in developing future ICT and media policies in Indonesia.

Researchers: Wirawan Agahari Mona Luthfina Usmani, Leonardus Kristianto Nugraha

In search of Indonesian model of alternative TV rating

Research period: January-December 2017

There is a growing consensus that the current TV industry produces poor quality content, as most TV stations refer to rating in order to produce their content. Due to the logic of ratings, the highest-rated programmes will be reproduced over and over again, resulting in content duplication. The current rating mechanism consists of survey collecting individual attributes and traffic counting audience (Webster, 2001) which can be misinterpreted to justify popular shows as “good” shows, or that the number of samples for the rating calculation represents all citizens -creating a sense that the popular show is in-line with citizen’s taste (Webster & Phalen, 1997). Such mechanism has hindered citizens to exercise their rights, since their ability to shape television content has been reduced to the number of their presence under the rating radar.

Remotivi, one of media watchdogs, responded by launching Rapotivi -a reporting tool that enables audience to submit their complaints about unsatisfactory quality of television content. Launched in February 2015, Rapotivi has been used by 3,000 active users across Indonesia and has received 1,447 complaints (as of January 2017). In the long run, this model could be used to encourage citizens to be more critical towards television content, while helping and/or re-strengthening Indonesia Broadcasting Commission on their monitoring function.

Employing a mixed methodological design, this 12-month research aims to capture the workings of Rapotivi and to conceptualise a new model of audience measurement that promotes a more open and participatory approaches, as well as provides a more comprehensive rating mechanism.

This study is funded by Ford Foundation. Klara Esti, Natasha H. Attamimi, and Leonardus K. Nugraha are working on this research under the guidance of Yanuar Nugroho who acts as the principal investigator.

Donor: The Web Foundation
Time Periode: November 2015 – April 2016

This research aim to understand how Jakarta Smart City and other existing initiatives outside the smart city programme affect the interaction and relationship between government and citizens, and their corresponding impacts on public service delivery and citizen participation. Furthermore, this research also looks at how these initiatives lead to the process of data creation, data sharing, and data use among decision makers – both at the government and citizen level.

Reforming research in Indonesia: Policies and practice was jointly carried out by the Communication Research Centre, University of Indonesia (Puskakom UI) and the Centre for Innovation Policy and Governance (CIPG), and in collaboration with the Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University, Australia (ARC). It was funded by Global Development Network. The study discusses the barriers in doing social research in post-Suharto Indonesia, within the context of Reformasi and higher education autonomy.

Download report here

Download infographics here